Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Bernard Lafayette Jr
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Bernard Lafayette Jr

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees.

Bernard LaFayette, Jr. has been a Civil Rights Movement activist, minister, educator, lecturer, and is an authority on the strategy on nonviolent social change. He co-founded the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960. He was a leader of the Nashville Movement, 1960 and on the Freedom Rides, 1961 and the 1965 Selma Movement. He directed the Alabama Voter Registration Project in 1962, and he was appointed National Program Administrator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and National Coordinator of the 1968 Poor Peoples' Campaign by Martin Luther King, Jr. In addition, Dr. LaFayette has served as Director of Peace and Justice in Latin America; Chairperson of the Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development; Director of the PUSH Excel Institute; and minister of the Westminster Presbyterian Church in Tuskegee, Alabama (Center for Nonviolence and Peace Studies at University of Rhode Island).

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Bernard Lafayette Jr
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Bernard Lafayette Jr

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees.

Bernard LaFayette, Jr. has been a Civil Rights Movement activist, minister, educator, lecturer, and is an authority on the strategy on nonviolent social change. He co-founded the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960. He was a leader of the Nashville Movement, 1960 and on the Freedom Rides, 1961 and the 1965 Selma Movement. He directed the Alabama Voter Registration Project in 1962, and he was appointed National Program Administrator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and National Coordinator of the 1968 Poor Peoples' Campaign by Martin Luther King, Jr. In addition, Dr. LaFayette has served as Director of Peace and Justice in Latin America; Chairperson of the Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development; Director of the PUSH Excel Institute; and minister of the Westminster Presbyterian Church in Tuskegee, Alabama (Center for Nonviolence and Peace Studies at University of Rhode Island).

Arrested June 2, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Carolyn Yvonne Reed, 21
Arrested June 2, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Carolyn Yvonne Reed, 21

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Carolyn Yvonne Reed was a twenty-one year old nurse's aid at Meharry Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee when she was arrested in Jackson, Mississippi for her participation in a Freedom Ride. As part of the Freedom Ride, Reed took a bus from Montgomery, Alabama to Jackson, Mississippi where she was arrested, along with thirteen others, at the Trailways terminal on 2 June 1961.

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Catherine Burks-Brooks, 21
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Catherine Burks-Brooks, 21

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Birmingham, AL native, 21-year-old Catherine Burks was a student at Tennessee State University when she volunteered for the Nashville Movement Freedom Ride. On May 18, she bantered with the ultra-segregationist Birmingham Public Safety Commissioner Bull Connor as he drove the Nashville riders from jail back to the Tennessee state line. 

Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles Cox, 18
Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles Cox, 18

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Charles Cox and several other local high school students joined in on the Freedom Rides, but were immediately arrested at the bus station and kept separate from the out-of-state Freedom Riders.

Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles Cox, 18
Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles Cox, 18

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Charles Cox and several other local high school students joined in on the Freedom Rides, but were immediately arrested at the bus station and kept separate from the out-of-state Freedom Riders.

Arrested June 2, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Cordell Reagon, 18
Arrested June 2, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Cordell Reagon, 18

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Cordell Reagon, who was arrested more than thirty times in the South for his anti-segregation activities, conducted nonviolent training workshops for hundreds of volunteers who journeyed to the South to work on voter registration campaigns and other civil rights projects.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. C. T. Vivian, 36
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. C. T. Vivian, 36

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

C.T. Vivian is a distinguished minister, author, and organizer. A leader in the Civil Rights Movement and friend to the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., he participated in Freedom Rides and sit-ins across our country.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. C. T. Vivian, 36
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. C. T. Vivian, 36

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

C.T. Vivian is a distinguished minister, author, and organizer. A leader in the Civil Rights Movement and friend to the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., he participated in Freedom Rides and sit-ins across our country.

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: David Fankhauser, 19
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: David Fankhauser, 19

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

David Fankhauser was a 19 year old Central State University student who spent 42 days in a Mississippi jail for not leaving a black-only Trailways waiting room in Jackson, Miss. He was one of 350 Freedom Riders jailed that year for “breach of peace.”

Arrested June 11, 1961 in Jackson, MS: David Morton, 21
Arrested June 11, 1961 in Jackson, MS: David Morton, 21

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

David Morton, a Minnesota native, was a folk singer and freelance writer. He joined the Greyhound ride from Nashville, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi where he was arrested in June 1961.

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles David Myers, 21
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles David Myers, 21

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

A resident of Noblesville, Indiana, as a 21-year old Central State College student, William Carl Mahoney joined the Freedom Ride from Nashville to Jackson, Mississippi in Montgomery, Alabama on May 28, 1961.

Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Eddie Austin, 18
Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Eddie Austin, 18

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Eddie Austin, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frances Wilson, 23
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frances Wilson, 23

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Frances Wilson was a student at Tennessee State University. Her ride: Nashville, Tennessee, via Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi (Greyhound).

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frances Wilson, 23
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frances Wilson, 23

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Frances Wilson was a student at Tennessee State University. Her ride: Nashville, Tennessee, via Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi (Greyhound).

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Holloway
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Holloway

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper headlines.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Holloway
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Holloway

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper headlines.

Arrested June 25, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Nelson, 22
Arrested June 25, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Nelson, 22

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Frank Nelson, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested July 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Gainnel Hayes, 15
Arrested July 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Gainnel Hayes, 15

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Gainnel Hayes was a student at Rowan Junior High School in Jackson. In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Miss Hayes, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested July 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Gainnel Hayes, 15
Arrested July 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Gainnel Hayes, 15

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Gainnel Hayes was a student at Rowan Junior High School in Jackson. In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Miss Hayes, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

genevieve_hughes.jpg
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Hank Thomas, 19
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Hank Thomas, 19

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees. 

Nineteen-year-old Hank Thomas joined the 1961 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Freedom Ride at the last minute after his roommate John Moody dropped out with a bad case of the flu. 

"When folks ask me what incident led me to ride," he said years later. "I can't say it was one. When you grow up and face this humiliation every day, there is no one thing. You always felt that way." 

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Hank Thomas, 19
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Hank Thomas, 19

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees. 

Nineteen-year-old Hank Thomas joined the 1961 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Freedom Ride at the last minute after his roommate John Moody dropped out with a bad case of the flu. 

"When folks ask me what incident led me to ride," he said years later. "I can't say it was one. When you grow up and face this humiliation every day, there is no one thing. You always felt that way." 

Arrested July 30, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Helen Singleton, 28
Arrested July 30, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Helen Singleton, 28

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide and collage on canvas.

Helen Singleton was a student at Santa Monica City College in Los Angeles, California when she rode an Illinois Central train from New Orleans, Louisiana to Jackson, Mississippi as part of the Freedom Rides of 1961. Singleton, along with more than a dozen others, was arrested on 30 July 1961 in Jackson, Mississippi for her participation in the Freedom Ride. Both her and her husband, Robert Singleton, were arrested.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James Bevel
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James Bevel

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper article.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James L. Farmer, 41
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James L. Farmer, 41

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

James L. Farmer was a civil rights activist and leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. He was the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of inter-state transportation in the United States.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James L. Farmer, 41
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James L. Farmer, 41

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

James L. Farmer was a civil rights activist and leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. He was the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of inter-state transportation in the United States.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. James Lawson, 32
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. James Lawson, 32

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. James Lawson, 32
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. James Lawson, 32

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper article.

Arrested June 1961 in Little Rock, AR: Janet Braun Reinitz, 22
Arrested June 1961 in Little Rock, AR: Janet Braun Reinitz, 22

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Her Freedom Ride began in St. Louis, Missouri, and continued through Little Rock, Arkansas; Pine Bluff, Arkansas; Texarkana, Texas; Beaumont, Texas; Shreveport, Louisiana; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; and New Orleans, Louisiana. The goal was to observe the circumstances at different stations and on the buses and to avoid getting arrested. She and others were arrested and sent to the Little Rock jail. Charged with and found guilty of breach of peace, Braun-Reinitz had the option to serve six months or leave the state within twenty-four hours. She was brought to the Ku Klux Klan headquarters.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jean Thompson, 19
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jean Thompson, 19

2011 22"x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper images.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jean Thompson, 19
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jean Thompson, 19

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper article.

Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Joan Pleune, 22
Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Joan Pleune, 22

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Joan Pleune, who was then a senior at Cal-Berkeley, had a deep tan at the time and was mistakenly placed in the "colored" cell-block until jailers later realized she was the sister of another white Freedom Rider arrested a few day earlier, who was in the white cells. "It really just showed you how silly it all was," she recalls.

Arrested June 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Joan Trumpauer Mulholland, 19
Arrested June 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Joan Trumpauer Mulholland, 19

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

She rode on an Illinois Central train from New Orleans to Jackson, Mississippi, with members of Congress of Racial Equality. On June 4, 1961, at the age of 19, she was arrested, and refused to pay bail. She was transferred to the Parchman State Prison Farm. Due to her involvement in the Freedom Rides, Joan was charged with breach of peace and jailed for more than two months.

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Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jorgia Siegel, 19
Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jorgia Siegel, 19

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, Siegel - then a 19-year-old UC Berkeley student named Jorgia Siegel - was one of 450 Freedom Riders arrested in Jackson, MS. Charged with the crime of “breach of the peace” (i.e. traveling on a train alongside black people), she spent 40 days locked up in the maximum-security wing of the Mississippi State Penitentiary known as Parchman Farm.

Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jorgia Siegel, 19
Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jorgia Siegel, 19

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, Siegel - then a 19-year-old UC Berkeley student named Jorgia Siegel - was one of 450 Freedom Riders arrested in Jackson, MS. Charged with the crime of “breach of the peace” (i.e. traveling on a train alongside black people), she spent 40 days locked up in the maximum-security wing of the Mississippi State Penitentiary known as Parchman Farm.

Arrested July 16, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Lewis Zuchman, 19
Arrested July 16, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Lewis Zuchman, 19

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide and collage on canvas.

Lewis Zuchman was one of the original 1961 Freedom Riders and has been recognized for his significant contributions to the civil rights movement in recent books, including “Breach of Peace” and “The Freedom Riders”.

Arrested July 16, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Lewis Zuchman, 19
Arrested July 16, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Lewis Zuchman, 19

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide and collage on canvas.

Lewis Zuchman was one of the original 1961 Freedom Riders and has been recognized for his significant contributions to the civil rights movement in recent books, including “Breach of Peace” and “The Freedom Riders”.

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Pauline Knight-Ofosu, 22
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Pauline Knight-Ofosu, 22

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Pauline Knight-Ofosu, a Tennessee State University student, boarded a bus with a group of civil rights activists and set out to challenge the South’s segregation of passengers on interstate transport.

Knight-Ofosu was prepared for the possible backlash – mob attacks, savage beatings, arrests and even death – but she remained steadfast on her quest to do what was right. 

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Earnest "Rip" Patton Jr., 21
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Earnest "Rip" Patton Jr., 21

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees. 

The 21-year-old Tennessee State student was the drum major in the University marching band when, in 1961, he became involved in the Nashville Movement. Patton arrived in Montgomery, AL on Tuesday, May 23 to help reinforce the riders meeting at the home of Dr. Harris after the May 21 firebombing and siege of Montgomery's First Baptist Church. 

Ernest "Rip" Patton, Jr. took part in the May 24, 1961 Greyhound Freedom Ride to Jackson, MS, where he was arrested and later transferred to Mississippi's notorious Parchman State Prison Farm. 

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Earnest "Rip" Patton Jr., 21
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Earnest "Rip" Patton Jr., 21

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees. 

The 21-year-old Tennessee State student was the drum major in the University marching band when, in 1961, he became involved in the Nashville Movement. Patton arrived in Montgomery, AL on Tuesday, May 23 to help reinforce the riders meeting at the home of Dr. Harris after the May 21 firebombing and siege of Montgomery's First Baptist Church. 

Ernest "Rip" Patton, Jr. took part in the May 24, 1961 Greyhound Freedom Ride to Jackson, MS, where he was arrested and later transferred to Mississippi's notorious Parchman State Prison Farm. 

Arrested July 5, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Bass, 18
Arrested July 5, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Bass, 18

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Robert Bass, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested July 5, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Bass, 18
Arrested July 5, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Bass, 18

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Robert Bass, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested July 30, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Singleton
Arrested July 30, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Singleton

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide and collage on canvas.

UCLA student, Robert Singleton participated in the New Orleans, Louisiana to Jackson Mississippi Freedom Ride on the Illinois Central Railroad on July 30, 1961. He was arrested for his part in the Freedom Rides. Both he and his wife, Helen Singleton, were arrested.

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Arrested June 21, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Theresa Walker, 33
Arrested June 21, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Theresa Walker, 33

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, Theresa Walker - then a 33-year-old mother joined the freedom rides with her husband. Together they were arrested while their children were looked after by her parents.

Arrested June 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Winonah Beamer, 19
Arrested June 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Winonah Beamer, 19

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Winonah Beamer was arrrested on June 9, 1961, at the Trailways station in Jackson, Mississippi. Beamer was one of a handful of Riders who refused to bail out ever, serving her entire sentence. She was released on Christmas Day, 1961. David Myers (another Freedom Rider) and Beamer were married in April 1962. Today they live in Ellenton, Florida.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Bernard Lafayette Jr
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Bernard Lafayette Jr
Arrested June 2, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Carolyn Yvonne Reed, 21
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Catherine Burks-Brooks, 21
Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles Cox, 18
Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles Cox, 18
Arrested June 2, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Cordell Reagon, 18
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. C. T. Vivian, 36
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. C. T. Vivian, 36
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: David Fankhauser, 19
Arrested June 11, 1961 in Jackson, MS: David Morton, 21
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles David Myers, 21
Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Eddie Austin, 18
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frances Wilson, 23
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frances Wilson, 23
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Holloway
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Holloway
Arrested June 25, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Nelson, 22
Arrested July 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Gainnel Hayes, 15
Arrested July 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Gainnel Hayes, 15
genevieve_hughes.jpg
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Hank Thomas, 19
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Hank Thomas, 19
Arrested July 30, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Helen Singleton, 28
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James Bevel
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James L. Farmer, 41
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James L. Farmer, 41
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. James Lawson, 32
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. James Lawson, 32
Arrested June 1961 in Little Rock, AR: Janet Braun Reinitz, 22
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jean Thompson, 19
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jean Thompson, 19
Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Joan Pleune, 22
Arrested June 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Joan Trumpauer Mulholland, 19
john_siegenthaler.jpg
Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jorgia Siegel, 19
Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jorgia Siegel, 19
Arrested July 16, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Lewis Zuchman, 19
Arrested July 16, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Lewis Zuchman, 19
Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Pauline Knight-Ofosu, 22
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Earnest "Rip" Patton Jr., 21
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Earnest "Rip" Patton Jr., 21
Arrested July 5, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Bass, 18
Arrested July 5, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Bass, 18
Arrested July 30, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Singleton
salynn_mccolumn.jpg
Arrested June 21, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Theresa Walker, 33
Arrested June 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Winonah Beamer, 19
Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Bernard Lafayette Jr

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees.

Bernard LaFayette, Jr. has been a Civil Rights Movement activist, minister, educator, lecturer, and is an authority on the strategy on nonviolent social change. He co-founded the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960. He was a leader of the Nashville Movement, 1960 and on the Freedom Rides, 1961 and the 1965 Selma Movement. He directed the Alabama Voter Registration Project in 1962, and he was appointed National Program Administrator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and National Coordinator of the 1968 Poor Peoples' Campaign by Martin Luther King, Jr. In addition, Dr. LaFayette has served as Director of Peace and Justice in Latin America; Chairperson of the Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development; Director of the PUSH Excel Institute; and minister of the Westminster Presbyterian Church in Tuskegee, Alabama (Center for Nonviolence and Peace Studies at University of Rhode Island).

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Bernard Lafayette Jr

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees.

Bernard LaFayette, Jr. has been a Civil Rights Movement activist, minister, educator, lecturer, and is an authority on the strategy on nonviolent social change. He co-founded the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960. He was a leader of the Nashville Movement, 1960 and on the Freedom Rides, 1961 and the 1965 Selma Movement. He directed the Alabama Voter Registration Project in 1962, and he was appointed National Program Administrator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and National Coordinator of the 1968 Poor Peoples' Campaign by Martin Luther King, Jr. In addition, Dr. LaFayette has served as Director of Peace and Justice in Latin America; Chairperson of the Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development; Director of the PUSH Excel Institute; and minister of the Westminster Presbyterian Church in Tuskegee, Alabama (Center for Nonviolence and Peace Studies at University of Rhode Island).

Arrested June 2, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Carolyn Yvonne Reed, 21

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Carolyn Yvonne Reed was a twenty-one year old nurse's aid at Meharry Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee when she was arrested in Jackson, Mississippi for her participation in a Freedom Ride. As part of the Freedom Ride, Reed took a bus from Montgomery, Alabama to Jackson, Mississippi where she was arrested, along with thirteen others, at the Trailways terminal on 2 June 1961.

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Catherine Burks-Brooks, 21

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Birmingham, AL native, 21-year-old Catherine Burks was a student at Tennessee State University when she volunteered for the Nashville Movement Freedom Ride. On May 18, she bantered with the ultra-segregationist Birmingham Public Safety Commissioner Bull Connor as he drove the Nashville riders from jail back to the Tennessee state line. 

Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles Cox, 18

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Charles Cox and several other local high school students joined in on the Freedom Rides, but were immediately arrested at the bus station and kept separate from the out-of-state Freedom Riders.

Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles Cox, 18

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Charles Cox and several other local high school students joined in on the Freedom Rides, but were immediately arrested at the bus station and kept separate from the out-of-state Freedom Riders.

Arrested June 2, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Cordell Reagon, 18

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Cordell Reagon, who was arrested more than thirty times in the South for his anti-segregation activities, conducted nonviolent training workshops for hundreds of volunteers who journeyed to the South to work on voter registration campaigns and other civil rights projects.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. C. T. Vivian, 36

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

C.T. Vivian is a distinguished minister, author, and organizer. A leader in the Civil Rights Movement and friend to the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., he participated in Freedom Rides and sit-ins across our country.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. C. T. Vivian, 36

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

C.T. Vivian is a distinguished minister, author, and organizer. A leader in the Civil Rights Movement and friend to the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., he participated in Freedom Rides and sit-ins across our country.

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: David Fankhauser, 19

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

David Fankhauser was a 19 year old Central State University student who spent 42 days in a Mississippi jail for not leaving a black-only Trailways waiting room in Jackson, Miss. He was one of 350 Freedom Riders jailed that year for “breach of peace.”

Arrested June 11, 1961 in Jackson, MS: David Morton, 21

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

David Morton, a Minnesota native, was a folk singer and freelance writer. He joined the Greyhound ride from Nashville, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi where he was arrested in June 1961.

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Charles David Myers, 21

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

A resident of Noblesville, Indiana, as a 21-year old Central State College student, William Carl Mahoney joined the Freedom Ride from Nashville to Jackson, Mississippi in Montgomery, Alabama on May 28, 1961.

Arrested July 13, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Eddie Austin, 18

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Eddie Austin, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frances Wilson, 23

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Frances Wilson was a student at Tennessee State University. Her ride: Nashville, Tennessee, via Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi (Greyhound).

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frances Wilson, 23

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Frances Wilson was a student at Tennessee State University. Her ride: Nashville, Tennessee, via Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi (Greyhound).

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Holloway

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper headlines.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Holloway

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper headlines.

Arrested June 25, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Frank Nelson, 22

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Frank Nelson, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested July 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Gainnel Hayes, 15

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Gainnel Hayes was a student at Rowan Junior High School in Jackson. In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Miss Hayes, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested July 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Gainnel Hayes, 15

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Gainnel Hayes was a student at Rowan Junior High School in Jackson. In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Miss Hayes, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Hank Thomas, 19

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees. 

Nineteen-year-old Hank Thomas joined the 1961 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Freedom Ride at the last minute after his roommate John Moody dropped out with a bad case of the flu. 

"When folks ask me what incident led me to ride," he said years later. "I can't say it was one. When you grow up and face this humiliation every day, there is no one thing. You always felt that way." 

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Hank Thomas, 19

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees. 

Nineteen-year-old Hank Thomas joined the 1961 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Freedom Ride at the last minute after his roommate John Moody dropped out with a bad case of the flu. 

"When folks ask me what incident led me to ride," he said years later. "I can't say it was one. When you grow up and face this humiliation every day, there is no one thing. You always felt that way." 

Arrested July 30, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Helen Singleton, 28

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide and collage on canvas.

Helen Singleton was a student at Santa Monica City College in Los Angeles, California when she rode an Illinois Central train from New Orleans, Louisiana to Jackson, Mississippi as part of the Freedom Rides of 1961. Singleton, along with more than a dozen others, was arrested on 30 July 1961 in Jackson, Mississippi for her participation in the Freedom Ride. Both her and her husband, Robert Singleton, were arrested.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James Bevel

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper article.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James L. Farmer, 41

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

James L. Farmer was a civil rights activist and leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. He was the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of inter-state transportation in the United States.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: James L. Farmer, 41

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

James L. Farmer was a civil rights activist and leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. He was the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of inter-state transportation in the United States.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. James Lawson, 32

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Rev. James Lawson, 32

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper article.

Arrested June 1961 in Little Rock, AR: Janet Braun Reinitz, 22

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Her Freedom Ride began in St. Louis, Missouri, and continued through Little Rock, Arkansas; Pine Bluff, Arkansas; Texarkana, Texas; Beaumont, Texas; Shreveport, Louisiana; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; and New Orleans, Louisiana. The goal was to observe the circumstances at different stations and on the buses and to avoid getting arrested. She and others were arrested and sent to the Little Rock jail. Charged with and found guilty of breach of peace, Braun-Reinitz had the option to serve six months or leave the state within twenty-four hours. She was brought to the Ku Klux Klan headquarters.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jean Thompson, 19

2011 22"x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper images.

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jean Thompson, 19

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of newspaper article.

Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Joan Pleune, 22

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Joan Pleune, who was then a senior at Cal-Berkeley, had a deep tan at the time and was mistakenly placed in the "colored" cell-block until jailers later realized she was the sister of another white Freedom Rider arrested a few day earlier, who was in the white cells. "It really just showed you how silly it all was," she recalls.

Arrested June 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Joan Trumpauer Mulholland, 19

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

She rode on an Illinois Central train from New Orleans to Jackson, Mississippi, with members of Congress of Racial Equality. On June 4, 1961, at the age of 19, she was arrested, and refused to pay bail. She was transferred to the Parchman State Prison Farm. Due to her involvement in the Freedom Rides, Joan was charged with breach of peace and jailed for more than two months.

Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jorgia Siegel, 19

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, Siegel - then a 19-year-old UC Berkeley student named Jorgia Siegel - was one of 450 Freedom Riders arrested in Jackson, MS. Charged with the crime of “breach of the peace” (i.e. traveling on a train alongside black people), she spent 40 days locked up in the maximum-security wing of the Mississippi State Penitentiary known as Parchman Farm.

Arrested June 20, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Jorgia Siegel, 19

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, Siegel - then a 19-year-old UC Berkeley student named Jorgia Siegel - was one of 450 Freedom Riders arrested in Jackson, MS. Charged with the crime of “breach of the peace” (i.e. traveling on a train alongside black people), she spent 40 days locked up in the maximum-security wing of the Mississippi State Penitentiary known as Parchman Farm.

Arrested July 16, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Lewis Zuchman, 19

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide and collage on canvas.

Lewis Zuchman was one of the original 1961 Freedom Riders and has been recognized for his significant contributions to the civil rights movement in recent books, including “Breach of Peace” and “The Freedom Riders”.

Arrested July 16, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Lewis Zuchman, 19

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide and collage on canvas.

Lewis Zuchman was one of the original 1961 Freedom Riders and has been recognized for his significant contributions to the civil rights movement in recent books, including “Breach of Peace” and “The Freedom Riders”.

Arrested May 28, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Pauline Knight-Ofosu, 22

2011 48'' x 72'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Pauline Knight-Ofosu, a Tennessee State University student, boarded a bus with a group of civil rights activists and set out to challenge the South’s segregation of passengers on interstate transport.

Knight-Ofosu was prepared for the possible backlash – mob attacks, savage beatings, arrests and even death – but she remained steadfast on her quest to do what was right. 

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Earnest "Rip" Patton Jr., 21

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees. 

The 21-year-old Tennessee State student was the drum major in the University marching band when, in 1961, he became involved in the Nashville Movement. Patton arrived in Montgomery, AL on Tuesday, May 23 to help reinforce the riders meeting at the home of Dr. Harris after the May 21 firebombing and siege of Montgomery's First Baptist Church. 

Ernest "Rip" Patton, Jr. took part in the May 24, 1961 Greyhound Freedom Ride to Jackson, MS, where he was arrested and later transferred to Mississippi's notorious Parchman State Prison Farm. 

Arrested May 24, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Earnest "Rip" Patton Jr., 21

2011 22" x 28" Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage of fellow arrestees. 

The 21-year-old Tennessee State student was the drum major in the University marching band when, in 1961, he became involved in the Nashville Movement. Patton arrived in Montgomery, AL on Tuesday, May 23 to help reinforce the riders meeting at the home of Dr. Harris after the May 21 firebombing and siege of Montgomery's First Baptist Church. 

Ernest "Rip" Patton, Jr. took part in the May 24, 1961 Greyhound Freedom Ride to Jackson, MS, where he was arrested and later transferred to Mississippi's notorious Parchman State Prison Farm. 

Arrested July 5, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Bass, 18

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Robert Bass, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested July 5, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Bass, 18

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, the Freedom Riders, a group of mostly young people, both black and white, including Robert Bass, risked their lives to challenge the system of segregation in interstate travel in the South. 

Arrested July 30, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Robert Singleton

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide and collage on canvas.

UCLA student, Robert Singleton participated in the New Orleans, Louisiana to Jackson Mississippi Freedom Ride on the Illinois Central Railroad on July 30, 1961. He was arrested for his part in the Freedom Rides. Both he and his wife, Helen Singleton, were arrested.

Arrested June 21, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Theresa Walker, 33

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

In the summer of 1961, Theresa Walker - then a 33-year-old mother joined the freedom rides with her husband. Together they were arrested while their children were looked after by her parents.

Arrested June 9, 1961 in Jackson, MS: Winonah Beamer, 19

2011 22'' x 28'' Materials: Oil, acrylic, iron oxide, and collage.

Winonah Beamer was arrrested on June 9, 1961, at the Trailways station in Jackson, Mississippi. Beamer was one of a handful of Riders who refused to bail out ever, serving her entire sentence. She was released on Christmas Day, 1961. David Myers (another Freedom Rider) and Beamer were married in April 1962. Today they live in Ellenton, Florida.

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